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  车载导航系统包括车载导航终端、数字地图、导航平台三大部分。其中数字地图、导航平台都是在后台服务,其软硬件环境可以不受什么限制;车载导航终端(VNT)则不然,因为其工作环境恶劣,软硬条件有限,给其研发工作带来很大挑战。 导航平台负责收集、分析处理(含数据融合)由交通信息采集系统采集的各类道路交通地理信 息,将其通过通信系统(如无线寻呼)下传到专门节点和车辆上。交通信息采集系统包括固定的交通信息检测系统(视频、微波、线圈、激光等交通检测器)和动态 交通检测器(以出租车为例,它既装备有车载导航系统,同时自身还可以作为一种交通信息探测器,以集群通信网与其中心进行通信)。通信系统包括有线和无线通 信两种方式,负责车辆与导航平台(综合信息平台、交管中心)之间的信息交流,从而达到车辆和路网间的信息互通。VNS主要由车辆定位模块、多媒体导航电子 地图、车载通信模块及其它车内设备构成。多媒体导航电子地图为系统提供诸如地理特征、道路位置、交通规则、基础设施等多种交通地理信息。它基于GIS操作 和查询电子地图,包括提供电子地图显示、浏览、缩放以及信息检索服务等功能。车辆定位模块由定位传感器和数据处理器组成,可以提供实时、连续的车辆位置信 息,为使定位信息在电子地图上显示更加准确,需要进行地图匹配。地图匹配将定位输出的位置与地图数据库提供的道路位置信息进行比较,并通过适当的模式匹配 和识别过程确定车辆当前的行驶路段以及在路段中的准确位置。
  如果电子地图的精度非常高,将使系统的整体定位精度得到提高,并为路径引导提供可靠保 证。车载导航终端安装有操作系统、多媒体电子地图、地理信息系统与相关软件系统。它们负责接收和处理信息,进行路径规划,帮助驾驶员在旅行前或旅行中选择 合适的出行路线,规划以后的结果需要由路径引导功能来实现。路径引导是帮助驾驶员沿预定路线行驶从而顺利到达目的地的过程。它根据地图数据库中的道路信息 和由定位模块及地图模块提供的当前车辆位置产生适当的实时驾驶指令,如语音提示、图形显示等。另外,在车载导航终端中,由显示器、控制器及相关软件系统构 成的人机交互模块是一个重要的组成部分。它提供用户与车载终端间的交互接口,用户通过它将地图显示、信息查询、路径规划等操作指令输入终端中,控制器也通 过它将以电子地图为背景的车辆位置、优路径规划结果、实时驾驶引导指令等用户需要的信息以语音提示、可视图形等多媒体方式表现出来。 地图匹配和路径规划是车载导航终端(VNT)的两项重要的技术,好的地图匹配方法。
  可以大大提高系统的定位精度,路径规划算法的优劣直接影响产品的导航功能。

The car navigation system includes three parts: vehicle navigation terminal, digital map and navigation platform. Digital maps and navigation platforms are all in the background, and their hardware and software environments can be free from any restrictions. Vehicle navigation terminals (VNTs) are not. Because of their poor working environment, hard and soft conditions are limited, and their R&D work is greatly affected. challenge. The navigation platform is responsible for collecting, analyzing and processing (including data fusion) all kinds of road traffic geographical information collected by the traffic information collection system and transmitting it to special nodes and vehicles through a communication system (such as radio paging). The traffic information collection system includes a fixed traffic information detection system (video, microwave, coil, laser, and other traffic detectors) and a dynamic traffic detector (taking a taxi as an example, it is equipped with an on-board navigation system, and it can also serve as a Traffic information detectors to communicate with the center of the cluster communication network). The communication system includes wired and wireless communication. It is responsible for the exchange of information between the vehicle and the navigation platform (integrated information platform, traffic control center), so as to achieve the intercommunication between the vehicle and the road network. The VNS is mainly composed of a vehicle positioning module, a multimedia navigation electronic map, a vehicle-mounted communication module, and other in-vehicle devices. Multimedia navigation electronic maps provide a variety of transportation geographic information such as geographical features, road locations, traffic rules, and infrastructure. It is based on GIS operations and querying electronic maps, including functions such as electronic map display, browsing, zooming, and information retrieval services. The vehicle positioning module is composed of a positioning sensor and a data processor, and can provide real-time and continuous vehicle position information. In order to make the positioning information displayed on the electronic map more accurately, map matching is needed. Map matching compares the location of the location output with road location information provided by the map database, and determines the exact location of the vehicle's current road segment and the road segment through appropriate pattern matching and recognition procedures.
If the accuracy of the electronic map is high, the overall positioning accuracy of the system will be improved and reliable guidance for path guidance will be provided. The car navigation terminal is equipped with an operating system, a multimedia electronic map, a geographic information system and related software systems. They are responsible for receiving and processing information, making path planning, and helping the driver to choose the appropriate travel route before or during a trip. The planned results need to be implemented by the route guidance function. Path guidance is a process that helps the driver to follow a predetermined route so as to reach the destination smoothly. It generates appropriate real-time driving instructions, such as voice prompts, graphic displays, etc. based on the road information in the map database and the current vehicle position provided by the positioning module and the map module. In addition, in the car navigation terminal, the human-machine interaction module composed of a display, a controller, and an associated software system is an important component. It provides an interface between the user and the vehicle terminal. The user inputs operation instructions such as map display, information query, path planning, etc. into the terminal. The controller also uses it as the background of the vehicle position and optimal route planning result. The information required by the user, such as real-time driving guidance instructions, is displayed in multimedia modes such as voice prompts and visual graphics. Map matching and path planning are two of the most important technologies for vehicle navigation terminals (VNTs) and a good map matching method.
The positioning accuracy of the system can be greatly improved, and the merits of the path planning algorithm directly affect the navigation function of the product.
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